- To find the number of factors of a given number, express the number as a product of powers of prime numbers.
In this case, 48 can be written as 16 * 3 = (24 * 3)
Now, increment the power of each of the prime numbers by 1 and multiply the result.
In this case it will be (4 + 1)*(1 + 1) = 5 * 2 = 10 (the power of 2 is 4 and the power of 3 is 1)
Therefore, there will 10 factors including 1 and 48. Excluding, these two numbers, you will have 10 – 2 = 8 factors.
- The sum of first n natural numbers = n (n+1)/2
The sum of squares of first n natural numbers is n (n+1)(2n+1)/6
The sum of first n even numbers= n (n+1)
The sum of first n odd numbers= n^2
- To find the squares of numbers near numbers of which squares are known
To find 41^2 , Add 40+41 to 1600 =1681
To find 59^2 , Subtract 60^2-(60+59) =3481
- If an equation (i:e f(x)=0 ) contains all positive co-efficient of any powers of x , it has no positive roots then.
- For an equation f(x)=0 , the maximum number of positive roots it can have is the number of sign changes in f(x) ; and the maximum number of negative roots it can have is the number of sign changes in f(-x) .
- For a cubic equation ax^3+bx^2+cx+d=o
sum of the roots = - b/a
sum of the product of the roots taken two at a time = c/a
product of the roots = -d/a
- For a biquadratic equation ax^4+bx^3+cx^2+dx+e = 0
sum of the roots = - b/a
sum of the product of the roots taken three at a time = c/a
sum of the product of the roots taken two at a time = -d/a
product of the roots = e/a
- If for two numbers x+y=k(=constant), then their PRODUCT is MAXIMUM if
- If for two numbers x*y=k(=constant), then their SUM is MINIMUM if
- |x| + |y| >= |x+y| (|| stands for absolute value or modulus )
- Product of any two numbers = Product of their HCF and LCM .
- For any regular polygon , the sum of the exterior angles is equal to 360 degrees
For any regular polygon , the sum of interior angles =(n-2)180 degrees
So measure of one angle in
Decagon = 144
- If any parallelogram can be inscribed in a circle , it must be a rectangle.
- If a trapezium can be inscribed in a circle it must be an isosceles trapezium (i:e oblique sides equal).
- For an isosceles trapezium , sum of a pair of opposite sides is equal in length to the sum of the other pair of opposite sides .(i:e AB+CD = AD+BC , taken in order) .
- Area of a regular hexagon : root(3)*3/2*(side)*(side)
- For any 2 numbers a>b
a>AM>GM>HM>b (where AM, GM ,HM stand for arithmetic, geometric , harmonic menasa respectively)
(GM)^2 = AM * HM
- For three positive numbers a, b ,c
(a+b+c) * (1/a+1/b+1/c)>=9
- For any positive integer n
2<= (1+1/n)^n <=3
- a^2+b^2+c^2 >= ab+bc+ca
- (n!)^2 > n^n (! for factorial)
- If a+b+c+d=constant , then the product a^p * b^q * c^r * d^s will be maximum
- Consider the two equations
If a1/a2 = b1/b2 = c1/c2 , then we have infinite solutions for these equations.
If a1/a2 = b1/b2 <> c1/c2 , then we have no solution for these equations.(<> means not equal to )
If a1/a2 <> b1/b2 , then we have a unique solutions for these equations..
- For any quadrilateral whose diagonals intersect at right angles , the area of the quadrilateral is
- Problems on clocks can be tackled as assuming two runners going round a circle , one 12 times as fast as the other . That is ,
the hour hand describes 1/2 degrees /minute .
Thus the minute hand describes 5(1/2) degrees more than the hour hand per minute .
The hour and the minute hand meet each other after every 65(5/11) minutes after being together at midnight.
(This can be derived from the above) .
- If n is even , n(n+1)(n+2) is divisible by 24
If n is any integer , n^2 + 4 is not divisible by 4
- Given the coordinates (a,b) (c,d) (e,f) (g,h) of a parallelogram , the coordinates of the meeting point of the diagonals can be found out by solving for
- Area of a triangle
=a*b*c/(4*R) where R is the CIRCUMRADIUS of the triangle = r*s ,where r is the inradius of the triangle .
In any triangle
a=b*CosC + c*CosB
b=c*CosA + a*CosC
c=a*CosB + b*CosA
- If a1/b1 = a2/b2 = a3/b3 = .............. , then each ratio is equal to
- In any triangle
- x^n -a^n = (x-a)(x^(n-1) + x^(n-2) + .......+ a^(n-1) ) ......Very useful for finding multiples .For example (17-14=3 will be a multiple of 17^3 - 14^3)
- e^x = 1 + (x)/1! + (x^2)/2! + (x^3)/3! + ........to infinity
- log(1+x) = x - (x^2)/2 + (x^3)/3 - (x^4)/4 .........to infinity [ Note the alternating sign . .Also note that the ogarithm is with respect to base e ]
- In a GP the product of any two terms equidistant from a term is always constant .
- For a cyclic quadrilateral , area = root( (s-a) * (s-b) * (s-c) * (s-d) ) , where s=(a+b+c+d)/2
- For a cyclic quadrilateral , the measure of an external angle is equal to the measure of the internal opposite angle.
(m+n)! is divisible by m! * n! .
- If a quadrilateral circumscribes a circle , the sum of a pair of opposite sides is equal to the sum of the other pair .
- The sum of an infinite GP = a/(1-r) , where a and r are resp. the first term and common ratio of the GP .
- The equation whose roots are the reciprocal of the roots of the equation ax^2+bx+c is cx^2+bx+a
- The coordinates of the centroid of a triangle with vertices (a,b) (c,d) (e,f)
- The ratio of the radii of the circumcircle and incircle of an equilateral triangle is 2:1 .
- Area of a parallelogram = base * height
- APPOLLONIUS THEOREM:
In a triangle , if AD be the median to the side BC , then
AB^2 + AC^2 = 2(AD^2 + BD^2) or 2(AD^2 + DC^2) .
- For similar cones , ratio of radii = ratio of their bases.
The HCF and LCM of two nos. are equal when they are equal .
- Volume of a pyramid = 1/3 * base area * height
- In an isosceles triangle , the perpendicular from the vertex to the base or the angular bisector from vertex to base bisects the base.
- In any triangle the angular bisector of an angle bisects the base in the ratio of the
- The quadrilateral formed by joining the angular bisectors of another quadrilateral is
- Roots of x^2+x+1=0 are 1,w,w^2 where 1+w+w^2=0 and w^3=1
- |a|+|b| = |a+b| if a*b>=0
- 2<= (1+1/n)^n <=3
- WINE and WATER formula:
If Q be the volume of a vessel
q qty of a mixture of water and wine be removed each time from a mixture
n be the number of times this operation be done
and A be the final qty of wine in the mixture
A/Q = (1-q/Q)^n
- Area of a hexagon = root(3) * 3 * (side)^2
- (1+x)^n ~ (1+nx) if x<<<1
- Some pythagorean triplets:
8,15,17 (8^2 / 2 = 15+17 )
12,35,37 (12^2 / 2 = 35+37)
16,63,65 (16^2 /2 = 63+65)
- Appolonius theorem could be applied to the 4 triangles formed in a parallelogram.
- Area of a trapezium = 1/2 * (sum of parallel sids) * height = median * height
- when a three digit number is reversed and the difference of these two numbers is taken , the middle number is always 9 and the sum of the other two numbers is always 9 .
- ANy function of the type y=f(x)=(ax-b)/(bx-a) is always of the form x=f(y) .
- Let W be any point inside a rectangle ABCD .
WD^2 + WB^2 = WC^2 + WA^2
Let a be the side of an equilateral triangle . then if three circles be drawn inside
this triangle touching each other then each's radius = a/(2*(root(3)+1))
- Let 'x' be certain base in which the representation of a number is 'abcd' , then the decimal value of this number is a*x^3 + b*x^2 + c*x + d
- when you multiply each side of the inequality by -1, you have to reverse the direction of the inequality.
- To find the squares of numbers from 50 to 59
For 5X^2 , use the formulae
(5X)^2 = 5^2 +X / X^2
Eg ; (55^2) = 25+5 /25
(56)^2 = 25+6/36
(59)^2 = 25+9/81
- Many of u must b aware of this formula, but the ppl who don't know it must b useful for them.
this is used for succesive discounts types of sums.
like 1999 population increses by 10% and then in 2000 by 5%
so the population in 2000 now is 10+5+(50/100)=+15.5% more that was in 1999
and if there is a decrease then it will be preceeded by a -ve sign and likeiwse