13 May 2010

A sudden change in bse volatility direction- to bring to the notice the weekly high & lows--At 12:44 pm, Bombay Stock Exchange’s Sensex was at 17380.23, up 184.42 points or 1.07 per cent.

It touched a high of 17389.15 and low of 17279.71 in trade so far. The market is gathering poise to extend the gains. We expect bullish bias in Reliance, HDIL and Sterlite. On the other hand Telecom scrips have broken crucial supports and further downside is likely in RCOM and IDEA," said Edelweiss note. 

BSE Midcap and BSE Smallcap Index were up 1.38 per cent each. 

Amongst the sectoral indices, BSE Realty Index was up 2.61 per cent, BSE Auto Index moved 2.18 per cent higher and BSE Healthcare Index advanced 1.21 per cent. 
Amongst the sectoral indices,  BSE FMCG Index gained 1.45 per cent. BSE Power Index was down 0.35 per cent and BSE Capital Goods Index slipped 0.10 per cent.

Scripwise Price Movement

Sectorwise Details

Scripwise Weightages

Current Value (SENSEX)
Last Updated on 5/13/2010 3:10:14 PM

*As on Wednesday, May 12, 2010





Shares Traded
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(Rs. Crs)

No. of Trades




Market Capitalization
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Intraday Graph of SENSEX


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Prior Period Comparison

Market Cap for SENSEX

As on
12 May 2010

Value (Rs. in Crores)


BSE Mkt. Cap



Index Full Mkt. Cap



Index Free Float Mkt. Cap



Previous Close
12 May 2010

Week Ago
06 May 2010

Month Ago
13 Apr 2010

Year Ago
13 May 2009



























52 Week High/Low














10 Jan 2008

27 Apr 1993

07 Apr 2010

14 May 2009







Although trading well above the dotted line, the Indian markets did see some pressure as the indices shed the gains that were seen during the previous two hours of trade. The market breadth is positive at present as there are 2.2 gainers for every loser on the overall BSE. In terms of sector specific stocks, buying is seen in stocks across the board led by those from the realty, auto and healthcare spaces. Stocks from the oil and gas and metal spaces are amongst the lowest gainers at present.

The BSE-Sensex is trading up by 125 points (up 0.7%) while NSE-Nifty is trading 35 points (up 0.7%) above the dotted line. Stocks from the small and midcap spaces seem to be in demand as the BSE-Midcap and BSE-Smallcap indices are both trading up by 1.3%. The rupee is trading at 44.96 to the US dollar


Q.1 What is SENSEX? 
The SENSEX, short form of the BSE-Sensitive Index, is a "Market Capitalization-Weighted" index of 30 stocks representing a sample of large, well-established and financially sound companies. It is the oldest index in India and has acquired a unique place in the collective consciousness of investors. The index is widely used to measure the performance of the Indian stock markets. SENSEX is considered to be the pulse of the Indian stock markets as it represents the underlying universe of listed stocks at The Stock Exchange, Mumbai. Further, as the oldest index of the Indian Stock market, it provides time series data over a fairly long period of time (since 1978-79).

Q.2 What are the objectives of SENSEX?
The SENSEX is the benchmark index of the Indian Capital Markets with wide acceptance among individual investors, institutional investors, foreign investors and fund managers. The objectives of the index are: 

To measure market movements 
Given its long history and its wide acceptance, no other index matches the SENSEX in reflecting market movements and sentiments. SENSEX is widely used to describe the mood in the Indian Stock markets. 

Benchmark for funds performance 
The inclusion of blue chip companies and the wide and balanced industry representation in the SENSEX makes it the ideal benchmark for fund managers to compare the performance of their funds. 

For index based derivative products 
Institutional investors, money managers and small investors all refer to the SENSEX for their specific purposes The SENSEX is in effect the proxy for the Indian stock markets. The country's first derivative product i.e. Index-Futures was launched on SENSEX.

Q.3 What are the criteria for selection and review of scrips for the SENSEX?

A. Quantitative Criteria: 

1. Market Capitalization:
The scrip should figure in the top 100 companies listed by market capitalization. Also market capitalization of each scrip should be more than 0.5 % of the total market capitalization of the Index i.e. the minimum weight should be 0.5 %. Since the SENSEX is a market capitalization weighted index, this is one of the primary criteria for scrip selection. (Market Capitalization would be averaged for last six months) 

2. Liquidity:
(i) Trading Frequency: The scrip should have been traded on each and every trading day for the last one year. Exceptions can be made for extreme reasons like scrip suspension etc. (ii) Number of Trades: Number of Trades: The scrip should be among the top 150 companies listed by average number of trades per day for the last one year. (iii) Value of Shares Traded: Value of Shares Traded: The scrip should be among the top 150 companies listed by average value of shares traded per day for the last one year. 

3. Continuity: 
Whenever the composition of the index is changed, the continuity of historical series of index values is re-established by correlating the value of the revised index to the old index (index before revision). The back calculation over the last one-year period is carried out and correlation of the revised index to the old index should not be less than 0.98. This ensures that the historical continuity of the index is maintained. 

4. Industry Representation: 
Scrip selection would take into account a balanced representation of the listed companies in the universe of BSE. The index companies should be leaders in their industry group. 

5. Listed History: 
The scrip should have a listing history of at least one year on BSE. 

B. Qualitative Criteria: 

Track Record: 
In the opinion of the Index Committee, the company should have an acceptable track record.

Q.4 What is the beta of SENSEX scrips?
Beta measures the sensitivity of a scrip movement relative to movement in the benchmark index i.e. SENSEX. A Beta of one means that for every change of 1% in index, the scrip moves by 1%. Statistically Beta is defined as: Covariance (SENSEX, Stock )/ Variance(SENSEX)
Note: Covariance and variance are calculated from the Daily Returns data of the SENSEX and SENSEX scrips.

Q.5 How is SENSEX calculated?
SENSEX is calculated using a "Market Capitalization-Weighted" methodology. As per this methodology, the level of index at any point of time reflects the total market value of 30 component stocks relative to a base period. (The market capitalization of a company is determined by multiplying the price of its stock by the number of shares issued by the company). An index of a set of a combined variables (such as price and number of shares) is commonly referred as a 'Composite Index' by statisticians. A single indexed number is used to represent the results of this calculation in order to make the value easier to work with and track over time. It is much easier to graph a chart based on indexed values than one based on actual values. 

The base period of SENSEX is 1978-79. The actual total market value of the stocks in the Index during the base period has been set equal to an indexed value of 100. This is often indicated by the notation 1978-79=100. The formula used to calculate the Index is fairly straightforward. However, the calculation of the adjustments to the Index (commonly called Index maintenance) is more complex. 

The calculation of SENSEX involves dividing the total market capitalization of 30 companies in the Index by a number called the Index Divisor. The Divisor is the only link to the original base period value of the SENSEX. It keeps the Index comparable over time and is the adjustment point for all Index maintenance adjustments. During market hours, prices of the index scrips, at which latest trades are executed, are used by the trading system to calculate SENSEX every 15 seconds and disseminated in real time.

Q.6 How is the closing Index calculated?
The closing SENSEX is computed taking the weighted average of all the trades on SENSEX constituents in the last 15 minutes of trading session. If a SENSEX constituent has not traded in the last 15 minutes, the last traded price is taken for computation of the Index closure. If a SENSEX constituent has not traded at all in a day, then its last day's closing price is taken for computation of Index closure. The use of Index Closure Algorithm prevents any intentional manipulation of the closing index value.

Q.7 How is the routine maintenance of SENSEX carried out? 

One of the important aspects of maintaining continuity with the past is to update the base year average. The base year value adjustment ensures that additional issue of capital and other corporate announcements like bonus etc. do not destroy the value of the index. The beauty of maintenance lies in the fact that adjustments for corporate actions in the Index should not per se affect the index values. 

The Index Cell of the Exchange does the day-to-day maintenance of the index within the broad index policy framework set by the Index Committee. The Index Cell takes special care to ensure that SENSEX and all the other BSE indices maintain their benchmark properties by striking a delicate balance between high turnover in Index scrips and its representative character. The Index Committee of the Exchange has experts from different field of finance related to the capital markets. They include Academicians, Fund-managers from leading Mutual Funds, Finance - Journalists, Market Participants, Independent Governing Board members, and Exchange administration.

Q.8 How are adjustments for Bonus, Rights and newly issued Capital carried out in SENSEX? 

The arithmetic calculation involved in calculating SENSEX is simple, but problem arises when one of the component stocks pays a bonus or issues rights shares. If no adjustments were made, a discontinuity would arise between the current value of the index and its previous value. The Index Cell of the Exchange periodically adjusts the base value to take care of such corporate announcements. 
Adjustments for Rights Issues: 
When a company, included in the compilation of the index, issues right shares, the market capitalisation of that company is increased by the number of additional shares issued based on the theoretical (ex-right) price. An offsetting or proportionate adjustment is then made to the Base Market Capitalisation (see ' Base Market Capitalisation Adjustment' below). 
Adjustments for Bonus Issue: 
When a company, included in the compilation of the index, issues bonus shares, the market capitalisation of that company does not undergo any change. Therefore, there is no change in the Base Market Capitalisation, only the 'number of shares' in the formula is updated. 
Other Issues: Base Market Capitalisation Adjustment is required when new shares are issued by way of conversion of debentures, mergers, spin-offs etc. or when equity is reduced by way of buy-back of shares, corporate restructuring etc. 
Base Market Capitalisation Adjustment: The formula for adjusting the Base Market Capitalisation is as follows: 

New Base Market Capitalis

Markets opened on a subdued note due to lack of buying at higher levels. The indices briefly slipped in the red following lower-than-expected IIP data. However, positive opening of the European markets provided support to the benchmarks

The double-digit headline industrial growth seen over the past 8 months is a result of the government's stimulus, the base effect and the economy gathering steam. The favorable base is likely to positively impact the numbers till May. Post-June we expect industrial growth to moderate to 8-9% levels.

We thus maintain our FY11 GDP estimate of 8.4% led by industry and services at 9.1% and agriculture at 4%. This incorporates an additional 75bps of rate hikes in 2010," said Rohini Malkani and Anushka Shah, economists, Citi India in a note.

Although trading well above the dotted line, the Indian markets did see some pressure as the indices shed the gains that were seen during the previous two hours of trade. The market breadth is positive at present as there are 2.2 gainers for every loser on the overall BSE. In terms of sector specific stocks, buying is seen in stocks across the board led by those from the realty, auto and healthcare spaces. Stocks from the oil and gas and metal spaces are amongst the lowest gainers at present.

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